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c 

1320/21 



Northwestern 

University Bulletin 



The School of Commerce 

1920-1921 



EVANSTON AND CHICAGO 



VOLUME XXI. NUMBER 1 JULY 3, 1920 

Published Weekly by Northwestern University 
Northwestern University Building, Chicago 



Northwestern University 

Evanston and Chicago 



The 

School of Commerce 

1920-1921 



Published by the University 



Contents 

Calendars 4 

The Faculty and Special Lecturers 6 

General Statement 12 

The Undergraduate Division 
Full-time Day Courses — Evanston 

Admission 14 

Requirements for the Degree 15 

The Schedule of Courses 17 

Registration 21 

General Information 21 

Part-time Evening Courses — Chicago 

Admission 26 

Requirements for Degree and Diploma 27 

Registration 28 

General Information 28 

The Graduate Division 

Admission 34 

Registration 34 

Requirements for the Degree 34 

Description of Courses 38 



Calendar for Evanston Classes 
1920 

Sept. 20, Mon. Academic year begins. 

Sept. 23, Thu. Lectures begin. 

Oct. 5, Tu. Last day for the registration of candidates for ad- 
vanced degrees. 

Nov. 25, Thu. Thanksgiving recess, to Nov. 28, Sunday, inclusive. 

Dec. 1, Wed. Last day for filing the titles of theses for advanced 
degrees. 

Dec. 18, Sat. Christmas recess, to Jan. 3, Monday, inclusive. 

1921 

Jan. 24, Mon. Mid-year examinations begin. 

Feb. 3, Thu. Lectures for the second semester begin. 

Mar. 24, Thu. Easter recess to Mar. 29, Tuesday, inclusive. 

Mar. 31, Thu. Last day for filing application for fellowships and 
graduate scholarships. 

May 14, Sat. Last day for the presentation of theses for advanced 
degrees. 

May 21, Sat. Oral examinations of candidates for advanced de- 
grees. 

May 30, Mon. Examinations begin. 

June 15, Wed. Sixty-third Annual Commencement. 



Calendar for Chicago Classes 
1920 

Aug. 30, Mon. Registration begins. 

Sept. 17, Fri. Opening convocation. 

Sept. 21, Tu. Registration closes. 

Sept. 22, Wed. First semester class work begins. 

Nov. 24, Wed. Thanksgiving recess to Nov. 28, Sunday, inclusive. 

Dec. 1, Wed. Last day for filing the titles of theses for advanced 
degrees. 

Dec. 20, Mon. Christmas recess, to Jan. 2, Sunday, inclusive. 

1921 

Jan. 3, Mon. Class work resumed. 

Jan. 24, Mon. Mid-year examinations begin. 

Jan. 29, Sat. First semester closes. 

Feb. 7, Mon. Second semester begins. 

May 14, Sat. Last day for the presentation of theses for advanced 
degrees. 

May 21, Sat. Oral examinations of candidates for advanced de- 
grees. 

May 23, Mon. Examinations begin. 

June 15, Wed. Sixty-third Annual Commencement. 



Administrative Officers 

Lynn Harold Hough, Th.D., D.D., President of the University. 

Ralph Emerson Heilman, Ph.D., Dean. 

Clarence Stephen Marsh, B.A., Educational Adviser. 

Neva Olive Lesley, Secretary. 

Bernice Elizabeth Collins, B.A., Recorder. 

The Faculty 

Walter Dill Scott, Professor of Applied Psychology. 

Ph.D., University of Leipzig, 1900; president The Scott Company, 
engineers in industrial personnel; chairman Committee on Classifica- 
tion of Personnel, U. S. Army; formerly president American Psycho- 
logical Association. 

Earl Dean Howard, Professor of Economics. 

Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1905 ; labor manager Hart, Schaffner & 
Marx; formerly secretary Committee on Industrial Relations, Cham- 
ber of Commerce of the United States of America. 

Frederick Shipp Deibler, Professor of Economics. 

Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1909; member of the board of direc- 
tors Illinois Free Employment Exchange; formerly assistant examiner 
U. S. Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board. 

Alfred William Bays, Professor of Business Law. 

B.S., Knox College, 1901; LL.B., Northwestern University, 1904; 
member Jacobson, Bays & Tompkins, attorneys. 

Arthur Edward Andersen, Professor of Accounting. 

C.P.A., Illinois, 1908; B.B.A., Northwestern University, 1917; senior 
partner Arthur Andersen & Company, certified public accountants; 
formerly president Illinois Society of Certified Public Accountants. 

Ralph Emerson Heilman, Professor of Economics. 

Ph.D., Harvard University, 1913; formerly examiner U. S. Shipbuild- 
ing Labor Adjustment Board, and district representative Industrial 
Relations Division, Emergency Fleet Corporation, for the North Atlan- 
tic Division. 

Horace Secrist, Professor of Economics and Statistics; Director of 
Bureau of Business Research. 

Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1911; formerly statistician Tonnage 
Section, Division of Planning and Statistics, U. S. Shipping Board; 
special representative U. S. Shipping Board to the Allied Maritime 
Transportation Council, London, 1918. 

Walter Kay Smart, Professor of Business English. 

Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1902; formerly head of the Department 
of English, Armour Institute of Technology. 



Walter Edward Lagerquist, Professor of Finance. 

Ph.D., Yale University, 1910; acting dean of the School of Commerce, 
Northwestern University, 1918-1919; special lecturer Federal Reserve 
Bank of Chicago. 

David Himmelblau, Professor of Accounting. 

C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1913; B.B.A., Northwestern University, 1914; 
member Arthur Andersen & Company, certified public accountants. 

Homer Bews Vanderblue, Professor of Transportation. 

Ph.D., Harvard University, 1915; absent on leave, as director of in- 
dustrial research, Denver Civic and Commercial Association; formerly 
with the statistical department, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad. 

Harry Anson Finney, Professor of Accounting. 

Ph.B., University of Chicago, 1913; C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1916; 
member of the faculty of the Walton School of Commerce, 1915 to 
1920. 

Paul S. Peirce, Visiting Professor of Economics (University of 
Iowa). 

Ph.D., Yale University, 1900; professor of economics, University of 
Iowa; assistant director Department of Civilian Relief, American Red 
Cross, Central Division Headquarters, Chicago. 

Robert Jackson Ray, Visiting Professor of Economics (Olivet Col- 
lege). 

M.A., University of Kansas, 1909; member editorial staff A. W. Shaw 
Company, publishers; formerly professor Keioko University, Tokio, 
Japan; dean of Olivet College, 1918-1919. 

Arthur J. Todd, Visiting Professor of Sociology (University of 
Minnesota). 

Ph.D., Yale University, 1911; professor of sociology, University of 
Minnesota; labor manager Kuppenheimer Clothing Company. 

Eric Louis Kohler, Associate Professor of Accounting. 

M.A., Northwestern University, 1915; C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1916; 
with Arthur Andersen & Company, certified public accountants. 

Clarence Stephen Marsh, Associate Professor of Business English. 

B.A., Northwestern University, 1910; registrar, Northwestern Uni- 
versity, 1911-1919; secretary and treasurer American Association of 
Collegiate Registrars, 1920. 

Fred E. Clark, Associate Professor of Economics and Marketing. 

Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1916; formerly special investigator of 
the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 

Henry Post Dutton, Associate Professor of Factory Management. 

B.E.E., University of Michigan, 1914; president Ever-Rest Spring 
Company; formerly with the Pullman Company and Arthur Young 
$c Company. 



Guy Meredith Pelton, Assistant Professor of Accounting. 

B.A., University of Wisconsin, 1909; with Arthur Andersen & Com- 
pany, certified public accountants. 

John Victor Tinen, Assistant Professor of Accounting. 

B.S., University of Illinois, 1912; formerly instructor, John Sterling 
Morton High School. 

LECTURERS 
In Charge of Regular Courses of Instruction 

James Harris Bliss, Accounting. 

C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1916; with accounting department Swift & 
Company; formerly treasurer Siegel Cooper & Company. 

William Frank Bryan, English. 

Ph.D., University of Chicago; associate professor of English, College 
of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 

John Rudolph Byland, Accounting. 

Instructor, Hyde Park High School, Chicago. 

Isaac Joslin Cox, Latin-America. 

Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1904; professor of history, Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 

Ronald Salmon Crane, English. 

Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 191 1; assistant professor of Eng- 
lish, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 

R. K. Das, Oriental Trade. 

Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1917; with the United Chemical & 
Organic Products Company. 

Irving Garwood, English. 

M.A., Harvard University, 1918. 

Joseph Henry Gilby, Accounting. 

Graduate, Northwestern University School of Commerce, 1911; C.P.A., 
State of Illinois, 1913; LL.B., Kent College of Law, 1916; on leave of 
absence 1919-1920, in Europe and South America with Morris & Com- 
pany; formerly chief accountant American Steel Foundries, East St. 
Louis, 111., and manager Amos Bird Company, Shanghai, China. 

Glenn Lee Grawols, Accounting. 

B.A., Hillsdale College; with the Continental Account & Audit Com- 
pany. 

William Herman Haas, Commerce and Trade. 

M.A., University of Chicago, 1903 ; associate professor of geology and 
geography, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 

Ernest Herman Hahne, Economics. 

LL.B., University of Nebraska, 1913 ; M.A., Harvard University, 1914; 
instructor in economics, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern Uni- 
versity. 

8 



Roy Hall, Accounting. 

B.A., Wabash College, 1909; C.P.A., state of Indiana, 1916; treasurer, 
Chapin & Company, Chicago. 

Clarion DeWitt Hardy, Argumentation. 

M.A., Dakota Wesleyan University, 1914; graduate of the School of 
Oratory, Northwestern University, 1905; assistant professor of public 
speaking, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 

Frazer Hood, Insurance. 

Ph.D., Yale University, 1902; formerly associate general agent The 
Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company, Memphis, Tenn. 

Delton Thomas Howard, Psychology. 

Ph.D., Cornell University, 1916; assistant professor of psychology, 
College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 

J. Lewis Jacobs, Organization. 

Ph.B., Yale University, 1907; C.E., Yale University, 1909; director, 
J. L. Jacobs & Company, industrial engineers and employment ad- 
visers. 

Paul K. Knight, Accounting. 

M.A., University of Illinois, 1917; with Arthur Andersen & Company, 
certified public accountants. 

John Otis Johnson, Accounting. 

With Thompson-Starrett Company. 

Arthur Quentin Larson, Accounting. 

B.A., State University of Iowa, 1910; instructor, Lyons Township High 
School, La Grange, Illinois. 

F. H. McAdow, Credits. 

Formerly president Chicago Credit Men's Association, and president 
National Credit Men's Association. 

Harrison Mcjohnston, English. 

M.A., Northwestern University, 19 14; general manager Brevity Pub- 
lishers, Inc., Chicago. 

Charles Augustus Myers, English. 

Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 191 1; assistant professor of English, 
College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 

Alexander W. T. Ogilvie, Management. 

Graduate, Northwestern University School of Commerce, 1913; auditor 
and office manager, E. H. Stafford & Company. 

James Hamilton Picken, Advertising. 

M.A., Harvard University, 1912; head James H. Picken Advertising 
Service. 

Franklin Bliss Snyder, Literature. 

Ph.D., Harvard University, 1909; professor of English, College of 
Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 



John Joseph Strittar, Accounting. 

With Arthur Andersen & Company, certified public accountants. 

John Charles Teevan, Business Law. 

LL.B., Northwestern University, 1917; with Dunne, Corboy & Dunne, 
lawyers; formerly with the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, auditor's 
office. 

Arthur Guy Terry, History. 

Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1906; associate professor of history, 
assistant dean of the College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 

Reginald De Koven Warner, Spanish and French. 

M.A., Boston University, 1915; instructor in romance languages, Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 

Louis Winfield Webb, Psychology. 

Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1916; assistant professor of education, 
College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 

Charles Conner Wells, Economics. 

B.S., Northwestern University, 1909; bond department, Continental 
& Commercial National Bank, 1918. 

Merle Leslie Wright, Effective Speaking. 

B.A., Northwestern University, 1914; instructor in public speaking, 
College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 

SPECIAL LECTURERS 
Co-operating in the Various Courses of Instruction 
Robert L. Ardrey, President, American Foreign Trade League. 
Francis X. Busch, Attorney at Law. 

Gilbert L. Campbell, Federal Board for Vocational Education. 
Mark W. Cresap, Secretary and Treasurer, Hart, Schaffner & Marx. 
Ralph B. Dennis, formerly American Vice-Consul in Russia. 
H. W. Dickerson, National Lead Company. 
S. John Duncan-Clark, Chicago Evening Post. 

Myrle C. Evans, Employment Manager, International Harvester 
Company. 

Edward P. Farwell, Local Manager, Babson Statistical Organization. 

Montague Ferry, Armstrong Bureau of Related Industries. 

William S. Ford, Arthur Young & Company. 

C. A. Hanson, The Dictaphone Company. 

Arthur L. Hill, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

10 



Willard E. Hotchkiss, National Wholesale Tailors Association. 

Paul C. Johnson, Arthur Andersen & Company. 

Albert C. MacMahon, National Cash Register Company. 

Robert J. Magill, Sales Department, J. W. Butler Paper Company. 

Charles F. McConnell, Sears, Roebuck & Company. 

Lynn W. Meekins, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

James F. Oates, General Agent, Northwestern Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Company. 

E. M. Mills, Illinois Steel Company. 

Herbert Pope, Butler, Lamb, Foster & Pope. 

Fred M. Simons, Jr., Arthur Andersen & Company. 

Arthur E. Swanson, Firestone Tire & Rubber Company. 

Frank E. Weakly, Montgomery Ward & Company. 

Louis D. H. Weld, Swift & Company. 

George Woodruff, First National Bank, Joliet, Illinois. 

Arthur H. Young, President, Chicago Council, The National Associ- 
ation of Employment Managers. 



11 



General Statement 

Northwestern University School of Commerce offers a compre- 
hensive professional course of training in business. The purpose of 
the School is to train the student for business on the basis of a 
broad outlook on life, to give him thorough knowledge of the prin- 
ciples that underlie business action, and to acquaint him with efficient 
business practice. The instruction has been planned to give him 
an understanding of the public relations of business and a broad 
survey of business facts and experience, to develop the power of 
accurate analysis, and to prepare the student for leadership as a 
business executive. 

The School of Commerce was established in June, 1908, with 255 
students. Its enrollment has increased rapidly, until today its total 
registration in all courses substantially exceeds three thousand stu- 
dents. 

The School is well equipped to offer training in business. Its 
location in a great urban center enables members of the faculty to 
maintain a close contact with the operation of modern business, and 
with business practice. It also permits of numerous inspection trips 
to important industrial, manufacturing and merchandising establish- 
ments by the students. It further makes it possible to utilize suc- 
cessful business men as instructors in certain specialized courses, and 
as general lecturers in various fields. 

The policy of the School is to identify itself closely with the busi- 
ness life of the community, in the belief that in this way it will be 
able to render a larger service both to its students and to the business 
world. 

The School offers both undergraduate and graduate instruction 
on two plans: 

1. Day classes, in Harris Hall on the University Campus, Evan- 
ston, for full-time students. 

2. Late afternoon, evening and Saturday classes in the North- 
western University Building, in the loop district of Chicago, for part- 
time students, mainly men and women who are engaged in business. 



12 



The Undergraduate Division 



The Undergraduate Division 

The Full-Time Courses 

Admission 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION 

Applicants for admission to the undergraduate division of the 
day work of the School of Commerce, leading to a degree, must 
present credit of acceptable grade for two years of work in a college, 
professional or scientific school of approved standing. Persons are 
not admitted to the course in Business unless their college record gives 
evidence of capacity to undertake serious professional study. 

For persons who desire to prepare for admission to the School of 
Commerce by pursuing work in the College of Liberal Arts of 
Northwestern University a two-year Pre-Commerce course has been 
arranged in this college. This course is described on page 17. Stu- 
dents preparing in other colleges or universities for admission to the 
School of Commerce of Northwestern University are urged to follow 
this Pre-Commerce program as nearly as possible. 

THE OBJECT IN REQUIRING TWO YEARS OF COLLEGE STUDY IN 
PREPARATION FOR ENTRANCE TO THE DEGREE COURSES 

The business career is rapidly acquiring a recognized professional 
standing. Every young business man should have a training which 
not only will enable him to maintain his place in the profession but 
also will serve to make him a leader in raising the standards of 
business efficiency. In order to do this, he must be able to look be- 
yond the routine duties of his work and to grasp the broader principles 
upon which business success is founded. 

Business today demands particularly men who are educated, and 
not men who are merely drilled in specific processes. It is infinitely 
complex and specialized, and requires a power of analysis which 
nothing can give so well as a comprehensive scientific training. With 
this complexity there exist, in a great modern business, far-reaching 
public relations demanding a liberal culture and the finest qualities of 
mind and spirit. 

In requiring two years of college work as a prerequisite for ad- 
mission to the degree courses, and in combining with the strictly 

14 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 15 



professional subjects in that course many others of a liberalizing 
purpose, the School of Commerce becomes articulated as an integral 
part of the scheme of American higher education. 

Requirements for the Degree 

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN COMMERCE 

The degree Bachelor of Science in Commerce is conferred on the 
recommendation of the faculty of the School of Commerce subject 
to the following provisions: 

1. The candidate for the Bachelor's degree must have pursued 
studies in residence in the School of Commerce of Northwestern 
University for at least one academic year and must have received 
the recommendation of the faculty for that degree. 

2. One of the two-year curricula of the School of Commerce 
must have been completed in addition to the two full years of college 
or professional school work required for entrance, sufficient to make a 
total credit of one hundred and twenty semester-hours. The Com- 
merce curriculum must have included the prescribed courses and a 
seminar course including a thesis. 

3. Of the total credit presented for the degree not more than 
one-tenth of the work done under the faculty of the School of Com- 
merce may be of grade D. 

4. The candidate for the degree must have presented acceptable 
evidence of at least three months' satisfactory service in a well- 
organized business concern. 

COMBINED LIBERAL ARTS AND COMMERCE COURSES 

The College of Liberal Arts permits a student registered in that 
college to elect approved courses in the School of Commerce not to 
exceed a total of thirty semester-hours, but these courses are not to 
count toward a major or a minor in Economics, with the exception 
of courses B12, Marketing; C10, Investments; C12, Rate Structure, 
and B7, Business Organization. A student who has completed two 
years in the College of Liberal Arts may register in the School of 
Commerce, and, upon the completion of his second year in the School 
of Commerce, may receive the degree Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor 
of Science from the College of Liberal Arts, provided he has met 



16 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



the college requirements for one of these degrees, including the re- 
quirements for a major and minor. 

A student who has completed three full years of work (90 semes- 
ter-hours) in the College of Liberal Arts, including full entrance 
requirements, all the required courses for a degree and a major and 
a minor or three minors, two of which are correlated, may transfer 
his registration to the School of Commerce. Upon the completion 
of one year of work (30 semester-hours) in Commerce he may 
receive the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. 

THE PRE-COMMERCE COURSE 

The Pre-Commerce course is designed to give Commerce stu- 
dents a broad cultural foundation, and to prepare the student properly 
for undertaking the study of the professional business subjects. 

This course is described on page 17. Modifications from it are 
to be made only with the approval of the Adviser to Pre-Commerce 
students, Room 318, Harris Hall. 

Students who plan to take the Pre-Commerce course must have 
a transcript of their high school credits submitted by the high school 
principal to the Registrar of the College of Liberal Arts, Evanston, 
Illinois. A blank for the submission of these credits, together with 
information regarding entrance requirements, may be obtained upon 
request from the Registrar, College of Liberal Arts, Evanston, Illinois. 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 



17 



The Schedule of Courses 



THE PRE-COMMERCE COURSE 

(Taken in the College of Liberal Arts) 

FRESHMAN YEAR 



First Semester 
English 
Trigonometry 
Language 
Economic History 
Geology 



Second Semester 
English 

Political Science or History 
Language 
Economic History 
Geology 



SOPHOMORE YEAR 



First Semester 



Second Semester 



English 
Economics 
Language 
Science 

Psychology, Political Science or 
History 



English 

Money and Banking 
Language 
Science 

Business Psychology, Political 
Science or History 



THE COURSES IN COMMERCE 

(Taken in the School of Commerce) 

For students who have completed the Pre-Commerce course above 
described, or its equivalent, in Northwestern University, or who 
transfer to Northwestern University upon the completion of two 
years of work in another institution, the following schedules offer 
typical courses which lead to the degree Bachelor of Science in Com- 
merce, and which also prepare the student for certain fields of busi- 
ness activity. 



GENERAL BUSINESS 



Third Year 
Required 

Corporation Finance 

Business Organization I 

Accounting I 

Business Law I 

Marketing and Distribution 
Electives in 

Advertising 

Sales Correspondence 

Introductory Cost Accounting 

Labor 

Transportation 

Investment Securities 

Business Organization II 

Political Science 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Business and Government 

Statistics and Statistical Methods 

Advanced Business English 

Seminar 
Electives in 

Foreign Trade 

Selling Policies 

Personnel Administration and Employ- 
ment Management 

Office Management 

Elements of Public Finance 

Accounting II 

Political Science 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



ACCOUNTING 



Third Year 
Required 

Accounting I 
Accounting II 
Business Law I 
Corporation Finance 
Business Organization I 
Marketing and Distribution 
Electives in 
Public Utilities 

Introductory Cost Accounting 
Elements of Public Finance 
Mathematics 
Investment Securities 
Political Science 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Accounting III 
Business and Government 
Statistics and Statistical Methods 
Advanced Business English 
Seminar 
Electives in 

Public Service Corporation Accounting 
Factory Cost Accounting 
Business Law 
Factory Management 
Business Statistics 

Special Problems in Corporation Fi- 
nance 
Principles of Taxation 
Political Science 



BANKING AND FINANCE 



Third Year 
Required 

Corporation Finance 

Business Organization I 

Accounting I 

Advanced Banking 

Business Law I 
Electives in 

Banking Law 

Corporation Law 

Elements of Public Finance 

Marketing and Distribution 

Selling Policies 

Political Science 

Investment Securities 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Business and Government 

Statistics and Statistical Methods 

Seminar 

Accounting II 

Advanced Business English 
Electives in 

Principles of Taxation 

Foreign Trade 

Accounting III 

Business Statistics 

Public Utilities 

Transportation 

Special Problems in Corporation 
nance 

Political Science 



Fi- 



FACTORY MANAGEMENT 



Third Year 
Required 

Corporation Finance 

Business Organization I 

Accounting I 

Marketing and Distribution 

Business Law I 
Electives in 

Labor Problems 

Factory Management 

Introductory Cost Accounting 

Office Management 

Personnel Administration and Employ 
ment Management 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Business and Government 

Statistics and Statistical Methods 

Seminar 

Accounting II 

Advanced Business English 
Electives in 

Business Statistics 

Factory Cost Accounting 

Engineering 

Transportation 

Mathematics 



SECRETARIAL WORK 



Third Year 
Required 

Corporation Finance 

Business Organization I 

Accounting I 

Marketing and Distribution 

Business Law I 
Electives in 

English 

Advertising 

Business Law 

Sales Correspondence 

Language 

Office Management 

Investment Securities 

Political Science 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Business and Government 

Statistics and Statistical Methods 

Seminar 

Advanced Business English 
Electives in 

Accounting 

Personnel Administration and Employ- 
ment Management 

Selling Policies 

Foreign Trade 

Political Science 

Accounting II 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 



19 



SALES MANAGEMENT AND ADVERTISING 



Third Year 

Required 

Marketing and Distribution 
Corporation Finance 
Business Organization I 
Accounting I 
Business Law I 

Electives in 

Sales Correspondence 
Resources and Trade 
Office Management 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Selling Policies 
Business and Government 
Statistics and Statistical Methods 
Advanced Business English 
Seminar 
Electives in 
Advertising 
Credits and Collections 
Foreign Trade 



FOREIGN TRADE 



Third Year 
Required 

Corporation Finance 

Business Organization I 

Accounting I 

Marketing and Distribution 

Business Law I 
Electives in 

Business Law 

Foreign Languages 

Foreign Trade 

International Law 

Transportation 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Business and Government 
Statistics and Statistical Methods 
Advanced Business English 
Seminar 
Electives in 

Foreign Languages 
Advanced Banking 
Selling Policies 
Advertising 
Sales Correspondence 
Cost Accounting 
Political Science 
Accounting II 



TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 



Third Year 
Required 

Corporation Finance 

Business Organization I 

Accounting I 

Marketing and Distribution 

Business Law I 
Electives in 

Transportation 

Public Utilities 

Transportation Law 

Office Management 

Sales Correspondence 

Special Problems in Corporation Fi 
nance 

Political Science 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Business and Government 

Statistics and Statistical Methods 

Seminar 

Accounting II 

Advanced Business English 
Electives in 

Advanced Transportation 

Business Statistics 

Personnel Administration and Employ- 
ment Management 

Public Service Corporation Accounting 

Cost Accounting 

Political Science 



EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT AND LABOR ADMINISTRATION 



Third Year 
Required 

Corporation Finance 

Business Organization I 

Accounting I 

Marketing and Distribution 

Business Law I 
Electives in 

Factory Management 

Labor Problems 

Labor Legislation 

Introductory Cost Accounting 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Business and Government 

Statistics and Statistical Methods 

Advanced Business English 

Seminar 
Electives in 

Office Management 

Personnel Administration and Employ- 
ment Management 

Advanced Labor Problems 

Social Psychology 

Accounting II 



20 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



PUBLIC AND SOCIAL SERVICE 



Third Year 
Required 

Corporation Finance 

Business Organization I 

Accounting I 

Marketing and Distribution 

Business Law I 
Electives in 

Labor Problems 

Public Utilities 

Political Parties 

Sociology 

Political Science 

Elements of Public Finance 

Industrial and Social Problems 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Business and Government 

Statistics and Statistical Methods 

Advanced Business English 

Seminar 
Electives in 

Labor Legislation 

Political Science 

Constitutional Law 

International Law 

Personnel Administration and Employ- 
ment Management 

Office Management 

Business Statistics 

Accounting II 



COMMERCIAL TEACHING 



Third Year 

Required 

Corporation Finance 
Business Organization I 
Accounting I 

Marketing and Distribution 
Business Law I 

Electives in 

Factory Management 
Office Management 
Commercial Education 
Educational Psychology 
Introductory Cost Accounting 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Business and Government 

Statistics and Statistical Methods 

Seminar 

Accounting II 

Advanced Business English 
Electives in 

Secondary Education 

English 

High School Methods 

Factory Cost Accounting 

History of Education 

Educational Psychology 

Business Statistics 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE ADMINISTRATION 



Third Year 
Required 

Corporation Finance 

Business Organization I 

Accounting I 

Marketing and Distribution 

Business Law I 
Electives in 

Labor Problems 

Transportation 

Public Utilities 

Principles of Taxation 

Municipal Government 

Elements of Public Finance 



Fourth Year 
Required 

Business and Government 

Statistics and Statistical Methods 

Advanced Business English 

Seminar 
Electives in 

Personnel Administration and Employ- 
ment Management 

Labor Legislation 

Office Management 

Business Law 

Political Science 

Accounting II 



FIFTH (GRADUATE) YEAR, FOLLOWING ANY OF THE ABOVE PROGRAMS 

The fifth (or graduate) year's work, following any of the above 
four-year programs, leads to the degree of Master of Business Ad- 
ministration. It consists of more advanced class work in the par- 
ticular field of business for which the student wishes to prepare 
himself, field work, investigative work, and the preparation of a 
thesis, in accordance with the provisions stated on page 35. 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 21 



Registration 

REGISTRATION IN THE COMMERCE COURSE 

Commerce students are required to register in person at the office 
of the School of Commerce in Harris Hall on the Campus in Evan- 
ston. Upon registration they must file a transcript of their credits 
from the College of Liberal Arts of Northwestern University, or the 
institution from which such credits are presented. 

Registration days are the first Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday 
of the first semester; and the first Friday and Saturday of the second 
semester. A student not registered at the close of this period is sub- 
ject to a fee of two dollars for late registration. 

A tuition bill is given to the student upon registration. This must 
be presented for payment immediately at the Business Manager's 
Office, 518 Davis Street, Evanston. 

REGISTRATION IN THE PRE-COMMERCE COURSE 

Every applicant for the Pre-Commerce course is required to 
register in person at the office of the Registrar of the College of 
Liberal Arts, in University Hall, Evanston, and to report for assign- 
ment of subjects and general instruction to the adviser for Pre-Com- 
merce students, office of the School of Commerce, Harris Hall. 

General Information 

THE LIBRARY 

The University Library in Evanston is open to officers of the 
University, and to students upon the payment of their regular 
semester bills. In addition to the University Library, there are avail- 
able to the students of the School of Commerce the Commerce 
Library in the Northwestern University Building, Chicago; the 
Elbert H. Gary Library of Law, housed in the same building; the 
John Crerar Library, the Public Library of Chicago, and the New- 
berry Library. The John Crerar Library is very completely equipped 
with materials for use in business research. 

FIELD WORK 

In many of the courses a substantial amount of field work is 
provided, in addition to the classroom instruction. This consists of 
inspection trips through various manufacturing and merchandising 
establishments in and around Chicago, and investigative work con- 
ducted by the student in such plants on special subjects or assign- 



22 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



ments under faculty supervision. In some courses a student will be 
assigned to conduct such work in some one selected establishment, 
and in other courses the field work will include study and observa- 
tions conducted at several plants. The purpose of this field work 
is to utilize the opportunities of Chicago in such a way as to provide 
the student with actual laboratory or clinical facilities for the scien- 
tific study of business, and to supplement the classroom instruction 
with concrete and illustrative material. 

THE BUREAU OF BUSINESS RESEARCH 

The Bureau of Business Research is an integral part of the 
School. It has for its purpose the conduct of investigation and 
research regarding business principles and the securing of data con- 
cerning business practice. The material thus secured is used for 
instructional purposes in the classroom, and so far as feasible is made 
available to all who are interested. 

EMPLOYMENT FOR GRADUATES 

Although the School of Commerce does not promise to secure 
positions for its graduates, it has organized a Bureau of Employment 
through which it makes a systematic effort to find positions for stu- 
dents who have made a good record in the School. It has proved of 
large value in aiding students to make satisfactory connection with 
business firms upon the completion of their study. 

BUSINESS FELLOWSHIPS 

Arrangements have been made with the National City Bank of 
New York to select annually one or more students from a group 
recommended by the School of Commerce, to spend in that institution 
a full year consisting of summer vacations and a period imme- 
diately following graduation. The student will be paid at the rate 
of from $1,350 to $1,500 per year by the bank, and will be allowed 
a maximum sum for traveling expenses. 

Several Chicago firms will employ, during vacations, a selected 
number of students who have definitely decided to enter the line of 
business in which the respective firms are engaged. 

LOAN FUNDS AND SCHOLARSHIPS 

The University receives annually a considerable sum of money 
to be lent to worthy students on the recommendation of a faculty 
committee. Satisfactory scholarship and promise of service are essen- 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 23 



tial to securing such assistance. Loans cannot in general be made 
until the student has been in residence for at least a half-year. 

A few scholarships, carrying full or part tuition, are also avail- 
able, to be awarded upon a basis of scholarship and need. Inquiry 
regarding these should be addressed to the Educational Adviser. 

RESIDENCES FOR MEN 

Thirteen dormitories, of which nine are fraternity houses and 
four are so-called college houses, are now available for men students; 
all men are required to live in a dormitory unless for sufficient cause 
they are given formal permission to live elsewhere. 

For description of the Buildings, see the Annual Catalog. 

The charge to each student for a single, furnished room, includ- 
ing care and heat for the school year, is from $115 to $140, except 
for rooms having a private bath, or a bath reserved for a suite, for 
which the annual charge is from $150 to $200. A chart can be 
obtained from the Registrar showing the location of rooms, with cost. 

Applications and all inquiries in regard to the dormitories should 
be sent to the Registrar of the College of Liberal Arts, University 
Hall, Evanston, Illinois. 

RESIDENCES FOR WOMEN 

Women students are under the immediate supervision of the 
Dean of Women. They are required to live in the halls established 
as women's residences or in the listed approved houses under private 
management, unless living in their own homes. Permission to live 
elsewhere is given in exceptional cases only and terminates at the end 
of the term (or semester) unless renewed. Wherever women stu- 
dents reside they are expected to conform to the general regulations 
governing absence from the house, visitors' hours, social engagements, 
and the like. 

Prices for room and board in these halls range from $242 to $324 
a year, according to the location of the room, payable quarterly in 
advance. For information, inquiries should be sent to the Dean 
of Women, Evanston, Illinois. 

It will be necessary, owing to advance in cost, to increase these 
charges for 1920-21 about $1.50 per week. 

COMMERCE SOCIETY 

The Commerce Society is an organization composed of Commerce 
and Pre-Commerce students. This society meets every two weeks 
and is addressed by business men. 



24 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



GRADES OF SCHOLARSHIP 

At the end of each semester the standing of each student in each 
of his courses is reported by the instructor to the secretary and is 
entered of record. Standing is expressed, according to proficiency, 
in grades A, B, C, D, E, F. 

Grade A denotes superior scholarship ; grade B, good scholarship ; 
grade C, fair scholarship; grade D, poor scholarship; grade E, a 
condition which may be removed by a second examination; grade 
F, a failure removable only by repetition of the subject in the class. 
Work of grades A, B and C is counted toward a degree. Work of 
grade D may also be counted toward a degree, but not more than one- 
tenth of the work done under the Commerce faculty offered to meet 
the requirements for graduation may be of this grade. 

Students who secure a lower grade than D in any course will be 
permitted to continue their work for the degree only in very excep- 
tional cases. In such cases, regulations for making up the work in 
which the deficiency occurs are the same as obtain in the College 
of Liberal Arts. 

Work reported "incomplete" at the end of any semester, and not 
made good by the beginning of the corresponding semester of the fol- 
lowing year, can thereafter be given credit only by repetition in class. 

The semester records of students are sent by the secretary to the 
student's father or guardian. 

Fees and Expenses 

EVANSTON CLASSES 

Matriculation Fee — Payable on the student's first admission 

to the University, not refundable or transferable $ 5.00 

Tuition — Payable each semester, in advance: 

Regular full tuition and incidentals 100.00 

Ordained ministers; wives, sons and daughters of ministers 60.00 
Students pursuing a single study, i. e., work not exceeding 

six hours a week 60.00 

Ordained ministers ; wives, sons and daughters of ministers 

pursuing a single study 50.00 

Registration in excess of eighteen hours, first hour 10.00 

Each additional hour 7.00 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 25 



Gymnasium Supplies — Charged women students using the 
gymnasium, to cover the rental of a locker, the use of a 
regulation bathing suit, towels, laundry, etc $ 2.50 

Student Enterprises — Charged all undergraduates, each se- 
mester, for general student activities. This fee secures to 
the student admission to all athletic games and oratorical 
contests under the control of faculty committees 2.50 

Late Registration— For registration after the first Wednes- 
day in the first semester and after the first Saturday in the 
second semester 2.00 

Changes in Registration — For any change in registration after 

the first full w T eek of a semester 1 .00 

Deferred Tuition Payment — For payment after the first ten 

days of the semester 2.00 

Special Examinations — For each examination taken at a time 

other than that provided in the regular schedule 2.00 

Graduation Fee — Charged persons taking any degree in the 
School of Commerce. Payable on the first day of May of 
the year of graduation 10.00 

Students Registered in Two Departments — A student whose primary 
registration is in another department of the University pays the 
fees of that department and may register in the School of Com- 
merce without additional fees for tuition for such courses as may 
be approved by both faculties concerned. 

Bills for fees are made out at the Office of the School of Commerce 
in Harris Hall. Payment is made at the Business Manager s 
Office, 518 Davis Street, Evanston. Checks should be made 
payable to "Northwestern University/' and all payments should 
be made in currency or in Chicago exchange. 

REFUNDS 

No fees for instruction or incidentals will be refunded except in 
cases of sickness. If on account of his serious illness a student with- 
draws before the middle of a semester, one-half of his tuition fee 
will be refunded, providing he secures from the Dean a statement 
of honorable standing, and from a physician a certificate that his 
health will not permit him to remain in attendance. Application for 
a refund must be made before the close of the semester for which the 
fee was paid. 



26 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



The Part-Time Undergraduate Courses 

In addition to the full-time day courses described on the preced- 
ing pages, the School of Commerce offers part-time late afternoon, 
evening and Saturday courses in the Northwestern University Build- 
ing in Chicago. These courses are intended primarily for the benefit 
of those who are employed, and who are therefore unable to give their 
entire time during the day to college studies. Students may, by 
pursuing a regular program of these courses, secure either the Diploma 
in Commerce or the degree Bachelor of Science in Commerce, or they 
may elect, as special students, to take any of these courses separately. 

Students in these courses who have fulfilled the requirements 
for entrance to the diploma or degree courses, and who have com- 
pleted sixteen semester-hours of work (the equivalent of four year 
subjects), may register for Commerce subjects in Evanston with the 
permission of the Commerce Committee on Registration, subject to 
to the regulations governing the admission of students to the particular 
courses concerned. 

Admission 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION 

Applicants for admission to the part-time afternoon and evening 
classes of the undergraduate division are classified in three general 
groups, with differing requirements, as stated below: 

i. As candidates for the degree Bachelor of Science in Commerce. 
Admission Requirement — Two years in a college, univer- 
sity, scientific, or professional school of approved stand- 
ing. 

2. As candidates for the Diploma in Commerce. 

Admission Requirement — Fifteen units of credit from a 
high school or preparatory school of approved standing. 

3. As special students. 

Admission Requirement — Fifteen units of credit, as stated 
above, in the case of applicants under 21 years of age. 
Applicants over 21 may be admitted as special students, 
without having completed a high school curriculum, 
provided they have had satisfactory business experience. 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 27 



Requirements for Degree and Diploma 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN 
COMMERCE 

In addition to meeting the entrance requirements, the candidate 
for this degree through the part-time courses offered in Chicago will 
be required to complete an amount of work equivalent to that re- 
quired for this degree in full-time day work, stated on page 12. The 
period of time required to qualify for the degree through this part- 
time program will depend upon the amount of work the student may 
carry. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DIPLOMA IN COMMERCE 

In addition to meeting the entrance requirements, the candidate 
for the Diploma must fulfill the requirements stated below: 

1. At least one year of satisfactory business experience. 

2. Twenty-four units of approved credit, of which not more 
than one-sixth may be of grade D (see Grades of Scholarship, page 
28). 

3. In the case of students presenting advanced credit from other 
institutions, at least eight units of work must be pursued under the 
direction of the faculty of the School of Commerce. No advanced 
credit toward the Diploma in Commerce will be allowed except for 
courses equivalent to those offered in the School of Commerce. 

4. Required subjects: Two units in each of the following: 
Accounting, Business Law, Economics and Finance. In addition, 
English II is required unless the student gives evidence by examina- 
tion of satisfactory proficiency in English. Not more than six units 
in Language can be accepted toward the Diploma. English I and 
Bookkeeping are not credited toward the Diploma. 

5. The Diploma in Commerce is awarded only to students 
whose major registration is in the afternoon and evening classes in 
Chicago. 

Registration 

Beginning August 30, members of the faculty are in the Chicago 
office of the School to assist part-time students and prospective stu- 
dents in arranging their courses of study. Every applicant for ad- 
mission is urged to avail himself of this opportunity for a personal 
interview. 



28 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Each applicant must fill out and file at the office an Information 
Blank and a Registration Blank accompanied by a Registration Fee 
of $5.00 (see p. 30). This fee is returned if for any reason the 
registration is not approved. Otherwise it is not refundable. 

General Information 

GRADES OF SCHOLARSHIP 

At the end of each semester the standing of a student in each of 
his courses is reported by the instructor to the secretary and is en- 
tered of record. Standing is expressed, according to proficiency, in 
grades A, B, C, D, E, F. 

Grade A denotes superior scholarship ; grade B, good scholarship ; 
grade C, fair scholarship; grade D, poor scholarship; grade E, a 
condition which may be removed by a second examination; grade 
F, a failure removable only by repetition of the subject in class. 
Work of grades A, B and C is counted toward a diploma. Work 
of grade D may also be counted toward a diploma, but not more 
than one-sixth of the work offered to meet the requirements for 
graduation may be of this grade. 

Work reported as of grade E must be made good at a second 
examination or must be taken again in the classroom if credit is to 
be obtained, but work of this grade cannot be raised by examination 
to a grade higher than D. Work of grade D cannot be raised to a 
higher grade by examination. 

Work reported "incomplete" at the end of any semester, and not 
made good by the beginning of the corresponding semester of the fol- 
lowing year, can thereafter be given credit only by repetition in the 
class. pjtj 

At the end of the school year, written report of grades received 
is mailed to the student, and, if he desires, to his employer or other 
person whom he may designate. 

ABSENCES 

If the number of student absences in a course during a single 
semester exceeds one-fourth of the number of class exercises scheduled 
for that course in the semester, he may not receive credit in the course, 
though he is at liberty to continue in attendance upon class exercises. 
His registration for credit in the course may be restored by the Edu- 
cational Adviser at the request of the student upon the written recom- 
mendation of the instructor. 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 29 



Prizes and Scholarships 

THE JOSEPH SCHAFFNER PRIZE 

A prize of one hundred dollars, the gift of Mr. Joseph Schaffner, 
is awarded annually to that evening student in the School of Com- 
merce who upon graduation has made the best record during a mini- 
mum of two years' work. Only those candidates are considered 
eligible for the prize who have taken in the evening or late afternoon 
classes in Chicago, three-fourths of the forty-eight semester-hours 
required for the Diploma in Commerce. 

ALPHA KAPPA PSI PRIZE 

By gift of Gamma Chapter of Alpha Kappa Psi Fraternity an 
annual scholarship of seventy-five dollars is awarded for the senior 
year of the diploma course to that student who, on the completion of 
his junior year, has shown the best record of scholarship up to that 
point in his course. 

DELTA SIGMA PI PRIZE 

A gold medal, gift of Delta Sigma Pi Fraternity, Beta Chapter, 
is awarded annually upon graduation to the senior of the diploma 
course of the School of Commerce who, in the judgment of the 
faculty, is ranked highest in scholarship, leadership and promise of 
future usefulness. 

THE CHICAGO DAILY NEWS PRIZES 

Two prizes, one of fifty dollars and one of twenty-five dollars, 
were in the year 1919-1920 awarded by The Chicago Daily News 
to the students in the advertising classes of the School of Commerce 
submitting the best two advertisements. 

SCHOLARSHIPS 

Four scholarships of seventy-five dollars each are open to part- 
time students. They will be awarded, if possible, to students who 
have been registered in the School, on the basis of their previous work 
and their ability to undertake the amount of work required. Appli- 
cations must be in before the first of August. 



30 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Fees and Expenses 

CHICAGO CLASSES 

Registration Fee — Payable once each year, not refundable or 

transferable $ 5.00 

Tuition — Payable each semester, in advance: 

Not transferable. Refundable only under conditions 
stated in regulations governing refunds (see below). 
Tuition bills are not mailed. Students must assume 
the responsibility of calling at the Office of the School 
for their bills, and of ascertaining, from instructions 
posted on the bulletin boards, the dates when payments 
are due. 

5 2-hour semester subjects m 50.00 

4 2-hour semester subjects 45.00 

3 2-hour semester subjects 40.00 

2 2-hour semester subjects 32.50 

1 2-hour semester subject 20.00 

*i 4-hour semester subject 40.00 

{1 additional 2-hour semester subject .... $12.50! 
2 additional 2-hour semester subjects . . . 20.00!- 
3 additional 2-hour semester subjects . . . 25.00J 

2 4-hour semester subjects 65.00 

Late Registration Fee (consult Calendar of current semester 

for registration dates) 2.00 

Delinquent Tuition Fee — For payment after close of first 

week of the semester 2.00 

Change of Subject Fee — For change of subject or class sec- 
tion after second week of the semester 2.00 

Lecture Note Fees — Charged in certain courses where the 
text is in the form of mimeographed lectures. Fee, de- 
pending upon the course, varies from $1.00 to 3.00 



*(i) This rate of $40.00 for a 4-hour course is charged new students 
registering in the second semester. It may be paid as follows: $20.00 on or 
by February 14; $20.00 on or by April 11. 

(2) Students who have paid in full the tuition for one or more courses 
taken through the first semester and who wish to register for a 4-hour course 
in the second semester of the same year are charged for such course the 
regular two-subject rate of tuition, $32.50. 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 31 



Special Examination Fee — Charged for each examination 
taken at a time other than that provided in the regular 
schedule $ 2.00 

Graduation Fee — Paid in the year of graduation by all candi- 
dates for Diploma or Degree 10.00 

REFUNDS 

Refund of one-half the tuition for the semester may be made 
if the student completely withdraws from School, before the middle 
of the semester, for one of the following reasons: 

1. Illness so serious that the student's physician certifies further 

school attendance in that semester to be impossible. 

2. Transfer out of Chicago, or immediate vicinity, by the firm 

with which the student is employed at time of registra- 
tion. 

Written application for refund must be made before the end of 
the semester in which the student withdraws, and must be accom- 
panied by either a physician's certificate or a letter from the manage- 
ment of the company with which the student is employed. 

No refund is made of amounts less than $10.00. 

In all cases other than those stated above, the student must assume 
the risk of changes in business and personal affairs. 

All refunds are made through the Business Office of the Univer- 
sity and must be authorized by the Board of Trustees. The neces- 
sary procedure in such cases takes from two to three weeks. Check 
is mailed direct to the student from the Business Office in Evanston. 

CREDIT FOR DISCONTINUED COURSES 

If a student, who has paid tuition in full for the semester, with- 
draws from school or discontinues part of his work before the middle 
of the semester, because of circumstances other than those for which 
refund may be made, he may secure a credit of one-half the tuition 
involved. This credit will apply to any work for w T hich he may 
register up to and including the corresponding semester of the year 
following withdrawal. 

The student must make written application for such credit, giving 
his reason for withdrawal, within one month after last class attend- 
ance. 

Tuition credit is not refundable or transferable. 



32 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Hours for Consultation and Registration 

The office of the School of Commerce, in Room 425, North- 
western University Building, at the corner of Lake and Dearborn 
Streets, Chicago, is open from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. ; during the school 
year, 9 a. m. to 9:30 p. m., daily; Saturdays, from 9 to 5. 

Address all correspondence to The Secretary, Northwestern 
University School of Commerce, Lake and Dearborn Streets, 
Chicago. 



The Graduate Division 



34 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

The Graduate Division 
Requirements for Admission 

All applicants for admission to the School of Commerce, who 
have received a professional or a bachelor's degree from a college, 
scientific or professional school of recognized standing, are required 
to register with the Graduate Division of the School of Commerce. 
Those who wish to become candidates for an advanced degree in this 
School must present proper certificates of qualification. The period 
of time required to obtain such a degree will be determined after 
consideration of the candidate's individual qualifications. 

Registration 

Registration with the Graduate Division, whether or not the 
applicant is a candidate for a degree, must be made not later than 
the dates indicated in the respective calendars for Evanston and 
Chicago classes, page 3. The applicant is required to file an official 
copy of his college record and to furnish a statement of the courses of 
study to be pursued which must be approved by the Director of the 
Graduate Division. 

Students who expect to carry the major portion of their work in 
the Evanston classes will file their applications at the Evanston office 
of the School of Commerce, Room 316, Harris Hall; those who 
expect to carry the major portion of their work in the Chicago classes 
will file their applications in the office of*the Graduate Division of 
the School of Commerce, Northwestern University Building, 31 
West Lake Street, Chicago. 

Requirements for the Degree 

The degree Master of Business Administration will be conferred 
under the following conditions: 

I. TIME AND RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS 

For candidates who have received a Bachelor's degree and who 
have taken the equivalent of a major in economics or commerce in 
this University or any other college, scientific or professional school of 
approved standing, the usual standard requirement for the degree 
Master of Business Administration is one year of full-time residence 
work, consisting of twenty-six semester-hours, in day classes. 

Students who have received a Bachelor's degree in Liberal Arts, 
either from Northwestern University or from a college or university 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 35 



of approved standing, but who have not the equivalent of a major in 
economics or commerce, will ordinarily be required to spend two years 
in full-time residence study, in day classes, in order to obtain the 
degree. 

Students pursuing all of their work in evening and Saturday 
classes in Chicago will be required to complete an amount of work 
in such classes which shall be equivalent to the requirements for the 
degree in day work. The period of time required to qualify for the 
degree through a part-time program in these classes will depend upon 
the amount of work which the student carries. 

A student in the School of Commerce who. during his under- 
graduate course, has completed more than the required one hundred 
and twenty hours for his Bachelor's degree, may receive credit for 
such excess toward a Master's degree upon the approval of the Direc- 
tor of the Graduate Division, but in no case will the degree Master of 
Business Administration be conferred in less than one year after the 
conferring of the Bachelor's degree. 

2. COURSE REQUIREMENTS AXD THESIS 

The candidate must have completed in residence work credits 
amounting to twenty-six semester-hours in approved courses. At 
least one-half of the credits presented toward fulfilling this require- 
ment shall be from courses as advanced as those of the "C group. 
Purely elementary courses may not be presented. Xo group of courses 
below the "B" group of courses will be accepted. The instructor in 
any course at his discretion may require work additional to regular 
class work in the courses taken for graduate credit. 

The candidate must present a thesis on an approved subject in the 
field of his study. In connection with his thesis, some original in- 
vestigative work is required in the business upon which the candidate 
is writing. The subject of this thesis must be filed with the Director 
of the Graduate Division not later than the first of December, on a 
form furnished by the Office, and the completed thesis must be filed 
not later than the fifteenth of May. It must be printed or type- 
written in prescribed form and a second copy must be furnished the 
School of Commerce Library. 

Through the Bureau of Business Research an opportunity is 
supplied to graduate students to take an active part in research work 
and closely to connect the same with the thesis which is required 
of each student. This opportunity extends both to the collection and 



36 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



interpretation of material and furnishes students the privilege, under 
certain circumstances, of establishing close contact with Chicago 
business houses. 

3. APPLICATION AND EXAMINATION 

Formal application for the degree must be made before November 
first of the academic year in which the degree is granted. 

The final oral examination of candidates for the degree takes 
place at the University at an appointed date within the last two 
weeks of May. The examination shall be conducted by a committee 
of the faculty of the School of Commerce of not less than five 
members. 

The degree, Master of Business Administration, is not awarded 
merely as result of pursuing a specified number of courses. Students 
are expected to meet the requirements imposed w T ith the professional 
spirit and measure of precision demanded in well-regulated business 
houses. As the course progresses, they should acquire ability to 
analyze business situations and to apply fundamental principles to the 
solution of practical business problems. If after a reasonable time 
a student's work does not give promise of effectiveness in the business 
field, he is discouraged from continuing the course. 

General Information 

General information concerning registration, tuition, fees and 
other matters pertaining to the full-time under-graduate day work, 
on the Evanston Campus, is given on page 21. This information 
also applies to graduate work, when carried on a full-time basis. 

Similar information concerning part-time under-graduate work, 
in the Chicago building, is given on page 28. This statement also 
applies to graduate work, when carried on a part-time basis. 

FELLOWSHIPS 

For the year 1920-21, five graduate fellowships have been pro- 
vided for students carrying a full program. These fellowships carry 
$500 each, and free tuition, and are to be awarded to graduates of 
recognized colleges or universities. Applications should be addressed 
to the Director of the Graduate Division, Northwestern University 
School of Commerce, Lake and Dearborn Streets, Chicago. 



Description of Courses 



38 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Description of Courses 

The following description includes courses offered by the School 
of Commerce, and related courses offered by co-operating departments 
of the University. 

Accounting 

PROFESSOR ANDERSEN, PROFESSOR HIMMELBLAU, PROFESSOR FINNEY, 

PROFESSOR KOHLER, PROFESSOR PELTON, PROFESSOR TINEN, MR. 

BLISS, MR. HALL, MR. LARSON, MR. KNIGHT, MR. GRAWOLS, 

MR. STRITTAR, MR. BYLAND, MR. JOHNSON 

AA. Bookkeeping — Principles of journalizing; distinction be- 
tween debits and credits; principles of single and double entry; keep- 
ing of ledger accounts and purpose thereof; loss and gain accounts 
and methods of determining losses and gains; abstracting trial balance 
and uses to which trial balances are put; preparation of simple 
financial statements. Prerequisite for Accounting I. Given in Chi- 
cago, Mon., Tu., Wed., Th., or Fri., 7:15 to 9:15. No credit. 
First semester, repeated in the second semester. Mr. Grawols, Mr. 
Byland, Mr. Johnson. 

Ai. Accounting I — Principles — An introduction to Accounting 
adapted for students having little or no bookkeeping knowledge. Ex- 
ercises in bookkeeping practice sets are correlated with a study of the 
fundamentals underlying the preparation of balance sheets and profit 
and loss statements of individuals, partnerships and corporations, w 7 ith 
emphasis on the structure and significance of the accounts making 
up these statements. Prerequisite for Accounting II. Given in 
Evanston, first semester, repeated in the second semester, Mon., Tu., 
Wed., Th., and Fri., 10. Open to students who have completed 
Economics A (see page 47). Credit, five semester-hours. Pro- 
fessor Pelton. Given in Chicago, first and second semesters, Sec. 
A, Mon., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. B, Wed., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. C, Fri., 
7:15 to 9:15; Sec. D, Mon. and Th., 6:05 to 7:00; Sec. E., Sat., 
2:15 to 4:15; Sec. H, Mon., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. K, Th., 7:15 to 
9:15; second semester, Sec. F, Mon. and Th., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. G, 
Mon. and Th., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. L, Tu. and Fri., 7:15 to 9:15; 
Sec. M, Tu., 7:15 to 9:15, and Sat., 2:15 to 4:15. Credit, two 
units. Professor Kohler, Professor Pelton, Professor Tinen, Mr. 
Hall, Mr. Larson, Mr. Grawols, Mr. Strittar. 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 39 



Bi. Accounting II — Intermediate — A continuation of Accounting 
I designed to train the student in analyzing business facts by account- 
ing methods. Statement of affairs ; realization and liquidation accounts ; 
executorship and trustee accounts; statement of application of funds; 
formation of corporations; capital and revenue expenditures; branch 
and agency accounting; proration of overhead costs. The balance 
sheet audit; the relation of the accountant, as auditor, to business; a 
study of specimen audits; preparation of reports by students. Given 
in Evanston, first semester, repeated in the second semester. Mon., 
Th., 1 130 to 3 :3c Open to students who have completed Account- 
ing I. Credit, jour semester-hours. Professor Kohler. Given in 
Chicago, first and second semesters, Sec. A, Mon., 7:15 to 9:15; 
Sec. B, Wed., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. C, Th., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, 
two units. Second semester, Sec. D, Mon., 7:15 to'9:i5. Credit, 
two semester-hours. Professor Kohler, Professor Pelton, Mr. 
Knight. 

Ci. Accounting III — Advanced — Continuation of Accounting II, 
primarily for those expecting to enter the accounting profession. Stu- 
dents completing Accounting III and the C. P. A. Review course 
should be prepared to take the state Certified Public Accountant 
examination. Special points in connection with the audit of munic- 
ipalities, institutions, banks, investment and insurance companies, 
land companies, publishers, mines, public utilities, contractors, etc. 
Investigations for special purposes; systems; income tax; consolidated 
balance sheets and income statements. Given in Chicago, first and 
second semesters, Wed., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, two units. Mr. 
Bliss. 

Di. Accounting IV — Postgraduate — A course similar to a seminar 
conducted for students desiring original research in the accounting 
field. Students will make individual reports on assignments from the 
instructor, and will prepare a thesis on a selected topic. To be elected 
only by permission of Professor Andersen. Given in Chicago, a year 
course, hours to be arranged. Credit, two to four units. Professor 
Andersen, Professor Himmelblau, Professor Kohler, Professor 
Pelton, and Mr. Bliss. 

B2. Introductory Cost Accounting — This course or its equiva- 
lent is required of all students before electing Factory Cost Account- 
ing. Emphasis will be placed on the bookkeeping of cost accounting 
and on acquiring familiarity with the more common cost forms and 
their uses. Open to students who have completed the first semester 
of Accounting I or its equivalent. Given in Chicago, second semes- 
ter, Tu., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. Professor Pelton. 



40 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



C2. Factory Cost Accounting — Accounting incident to the purchase, 
receipt and issue of raw and finished materials, payrolls, and factory 
expenses, and the scientific distribution thereof; issuance of shop 
orders; perpetual inventories; productive and non-productive labor; 
recording and paying of wages; piece work, profit-sharing and 
premium or bonus systems; factory overhead expenses; rent and in- 
terest in costs; system of repair, renewal and construction orders and 
the allocation of selling, distributing and administrative expenses; 
the use and value of graphic charts in the final assembly of data 
and statistics. Open to students who have completed Introductory 
Cost Accounting or its equivalent. Registration on permission of 
instructor. Given in Chicago, first and second semesters. Mon., 
7:15 to 9:15. Credit, two units. Professor Himmelblau. 

C3. Public Service Corporation Accounting — Railways, street rail- 
ways, telephone, telegraph, gas, water, electric light and other public 
service corporations; plant costs, interests, discounts and securi- 
ties; going value, evaluation of franchises, maintenance expenditures, 
depreciation, control over income and expenditures, principles of 
analyzing costs for determination of rates, financial statements, com- 
pilation of statistical data. Open to students who have had the 
equivalent of Accounting II. Credit, two units. 

D2. C. P. A. Review — Thorough practice work in classroom to pre- 
pare candidates for Certified Public Accountant examinations. The 
object is to train students to apply accounting principles and to work 
in classroom under substantially the same conditions as in examination 
room. Practical accounting problems; auditing and theory of ac- 
counts; analysis and discussion. The last hour is devoted to an open 
discussion of the solutions to problems assigned. Instruction is largely 
individual. Given in Chicago each semester; a twelve weeks' course 
immediately preceding the C. P. A. examination. Sat., 2:15 to 5:15. 
Credit, one unit. Mr. Bliss. 

C4. Federal Taxation — This course is intended to present to 
accountants, lawyers, business executives and others interested in the 
subject of taxation, detailed knowledge of the requirements of Federal 
and State tax laws, which will enable them to prepare returns which 
will be satisfactory to both the Government and taxpayer. The course 
will call for a more detailed study of the tax laws than is contem- 
plated in the special course which will be given on Federal taxes. 
It will also embrace a general study of the local tax laws. Given 
in Chicago, first semester, Mon., Th., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, two 
units. Professor Kohler. 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 41 



Federal Taxation, Special Course — A series of six lectures on the 
subject of federal taxes; the accounting and legal phases of the prep- 
aration of returns; a review and interpretation of Treasury Depart- 
ment and Court decisions. Given in Chicago. Dates to be announced. 
Professor Andersen. 

DEGREE OF CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT 

By act of the Illinois General Assembly passed May 15, 1903, 
provision is made for the examination for the degree of Certified 
Public Accountant which is conferred by the State. Copies of the 
law and regulations governing the examination may be obtained by 
addressing Mr. C. M. McConn, Secretary, Committee on Account- 
ancy, Urbana, Illinois. 

Business Law 

PROFESSOR BAYS, MR. TEEVAN 

Bi. Business Law I — General elementary law; contracts; agency. 
Business Law I is fundamental and should be taken as a basis of 
the student's further law work. Given in Evanston, with Business 
Law II, second semester. Credit, four semester-hours. Mr. Teevan. 
Given in Chicago, first semester, Mon., Tu., Wed., Th. or Fri., 
7:15 to 9:15; repeated in the second semester, Tu., 7:15 to 9:15, 
or Mon. and Th., 6 :05 to 7 :oo. Credit, one unit. Professor Bays 
and Mr. Teevan. 

B2. Business Law II — Sales of personal property; debtor, 
creditor, and bankruptcy; negotiable paper. Given in Evanston, see 
Business Law I. Given in Chicago, second semester, Th., 7:15 to 
9:15, or Sat., 2:15 to 4:15. Credit, one unit. Professor Bays. 

B3. Business Law III — Corporations; partnerships. Given in 
Chicago, first semester, Fri., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. Mr. 
Teevan. 

B4. Business Law IV — Trade-marks and unfair competition; 
suretyship, banks and banking. Given in Chicago, second semester. 
Credit, one unit. Professor Bays. 

B5. Business Law V — Law of real and personal property, insur- 
ance. Given in Chicago, second semester, Fri., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, 
one unit. Mr. Teevan. 



42 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Banking and Finance 

PROFESSOR LAGERQUIST, MR. MC ADOW, MR. HAHNE 

Money and Banking (Economics Bi) — A brief discussion of the 
history and principles of money; the monetary system of the United 
States, including some of our past problems and their solution ; theory 
of the value of money; index numbers. Principles of banking and 
functions of banks and of bank credit; foreign exchange and gold 
movements; history of banking in the United States; foreign banking 
systems; our banking system today with particular emphasis on the 
Federal Reserve System; required in the first year of the course in 
Business Administration. Given in Evanston, second semester, Mon., 
Wed., Fri., 8. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago, 
Th., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, two units. Professor Lagerquist and 
Mr. Hahne. 

Corporation Finance (Economics Bj) — Corporate organization 
in modern business; the salient points in its legal organization; 
classification of the instruments of finance; promotion, underwriting, 
capitalization, earnings, expenses, surplus, manipulation, insolvency, 
receivership, reorganization, and regulation. Open to students who 
have completed the elements of Economics. Required in the first 
year of the course in Business Administration. Given in Evanston, 
first semester, Mon., Wed., Fri., 9. Credit, three semester-hours. 
Given in Chicago, first semester, Mon. and Th., 6:05 to 7:00. 
Credit, one unit. Professor Lagerquist. 

Investments (Economics Cio) — Markets and their influence on 
the price of securities. Elements of sound investments and methods 
of computing net earnings, amortization, rights, and convertibles. 
Government, municipal, railroad, steamship, street railway, gas, elec- 
tric, water power, real estate, timber, and irrigation securities as 
investments. Open to students who have completed Economics Bi. 
Given in Evanston, second semester, Mon., Wed., Fri., 9. Credit, 
three semester-hours. Given in Chicago, second semester, Mon. and 
Th., 6 105 to 7 :oo. Credit, one unit. Professor Lagerquist. 

Advanced Money and Banking (Economics Ci) — The Federal 
Reserve System; a review of its chief features; effect of the System 
and of the European War on our banking practices, problems and 
financial relationships. Bank credits and credit analysis; collections 
and clearings; foreign exchange; money markets and rates, and bank 
investments. Crises, their history and theory; the Federal Reserve 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 43 



System as a preventive of panics. Agricultural credit here and abroad ; 
the Federal Farm Loan Act. Open to students who have completed 
Money and Banking, and Corporation Finance. Given in Evanston, 
first and second semesters, Mon., Wed., Fri., 8. Credit, six semester- 
hours. Given in Chicago, first and second semesters, Wed., 7:15 to 
9:15. Credit, two units. 

Special Problems in Corporation Finance and Investment Securi- 
ties (Economics D2) — A critical study is made of selected problems, 
such as working capital, valuation, surplus, reorganizations, special in- 
vestment security problems, etc. Each student is required to under- 
take an individual investigation. Open to Commerce students only. 
Given in Evanston, second semester. Hours to be arranged. Credit, 
three to six semester-hours. Professor Lagerquist. 

Credits and Collections (Commerce Bi) — This course deals with 
the problems of the credit man and the credit department ; the organi- 
zation of the credit department, methods, operation, basis of credit, 
use of credit instruments, classes of credit, analysis of financial state- 
ments, relation of credit and sales departments and legal rights of the 
debtor and creditor. Given in Chicago, first semester, Sat., 2:15 to 
4:15. Credit, one unit. Mr. McAdow. 

Stock Exchange Organization and Money Markets (Economics 
C16) — A study is made of the technical stock exchange organizations, 
the methods, operation, their influences on the security market and 
their public relationship. An extensive analysis is made of the finan- 
cial market, the factors controlling these markets, both domestic and 
international, the method of analysis used in practice with special 
relation to security prices. Open to students who have completed 
the course in Investments or Advanced Banking. Given in Evanston, 
first semester. Hours to be arranged. Credit, two semester-hours. 
Given in Chicago, first semester, Sat., 2:15 to 4:15. Credit, one 
unit. Professor Lagerquist. 

Commerce and Trade 

PROFESSOR CLARK, PROFESSOR HAAS, MR. PICKEN 

Advertising (Commerce B2) — A study of advertising in all its 
phases ; training of advertising men. Based on practical investigations 
and a study of recent advertising campaigns. National display adver- 
tising, retail and department store advertising, poster advertising, 
specialty advertising, electric signs and other advertising methods. 
Students are required to submit original work. Considerable atten- 



44 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



tion is given to the psychological principles underlying successful 
advertising. Some attention is given also to the wider economic and 
social aspects of advertising. Given in Evanston, first semester, Wed., 
4 to 6. Credit, two semester-hours. Open to Commerce students 
only. Given in Chicago, first semester, Mon., 7:15 to 9:15; second 
semester, Tu., 7:15 to 9:15. Open to students who have had a 
course in elementary psychology, or some practical work in the adver- 
tising field. Credit, one unit. Mr. Picken. 

Marketing and Distribution (Economics B12) — Factors in our 
distributive system including manufacturer; general and specialty 
wholesaler; jobber and sub-jobber; commission merchant; factory 
agent; broker; department, specialty, general, syndicate stores; general 
retailer; mail order retailer; retail agent and salesman. Sales, ad- 
vertising and credit organization and management of the factors in 
the various schemes of distribution. Given in Evanston, first se- 
mester, Mon., Wed., Fri., 1 1. Credit, three semester-hours. Open 
to Commerce students only. Given in Chicago, first semester, Th., 
7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. Professor Clark. 

Selling Policies (Commerce Ci) — This course will deal with the 
problems of sales management, selling methods and the elements of 
sales campaigns. Typical problems are analyzed and the methods of 
follow-ups are studied. Among topics considered are principles of 
personal salesmanship, building a sales organization, the duties of a 
sales manager, the training and selecting of salesmen, devising selling 
methods, planning of sales campaigns, etc. Given in Evanston, second 
semester, Mon., Wed., Fri., 11. Credit, three semester-hours. Open 
to Commerce students only. Given in Chicago, second semester, Th., 
7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. Professor Clark. 

Sales Correspondence (Commerce B3) — An advanced course in 
sales correspondence methods, based on practical work in the field; 
study of results of sales literature as used by leading firms. Principles 
of sales correspondence emphasizing the psychological background of 
successful correspondence. Problems in correspondence; the writing 
of letters and circulars ; analysis of the writer's work. Given in Chi- 
cago, second semester, Mon., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. Mr. 
Picken. 

Resources and Trade (Commerce B4) — A study of resources and 
the production of, and trade in, commodities as influenced by environ- 
mental conditions; emphasis is laid on natural resources, agricultural, 
forest and mineral, and the industry or product arising from the re- 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 45 



source. In each group the more important products will be singled 
out for detailed study of their occurrence, production and exchange. 
A study is made of other nations, both as consumers and as producers, 
but the resources and trade of the United States are studied more in 
detail and are made the basis of comparisons. Given in Chicago, first' 
semester, Tu., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. Professor Haas. 

Physiography and Geology (Geology A2) — The origin and sig- 
nificance of earth features and the relations of such features to human 
activities; climatic factors, weather forecasting, types of climate, in- 
fluences of climate on life ; earth relations, maps and map reading, 
longitude and time, land surveys. A study of geologic processes and 
results with reference to the changing forms of earth features; the 
relations of geologic history to present geography; the large events 
of geologic history, and the succession of life on the earth. A year 
course, first semester repeated during the second semester. Given 
in Evanston. Hours to be arranged. Professor Haas. 

Industrial and Commercial Geography (Geology A 5) — A study 
of the production of, and trade in, commodities as affected by general 
environmental conditions; the great continental and oceanic trade 
routes, factors in the distribution of commodities. Throughout the 
course emphasis is laid on the working out of geographic prin- 
ciples and on a sympathetic understanding of the trade problems, both 
of the United States, and of other nations. Open to students who 
have completed Geology Ai or the first semester of Geology A2. A 
semester subject repeated in the second semester. Given in Evanston. 
Hours to be arranged. Professor Haas. 

Foreign Trade and Foreign Relations 

PROFESSOR CLARK, PROFESSOR TERRY, PROFESSOR HAAS, 
PROFESSOR COX, DR. DAS 

World Commerce (Commerce B$) — A study of foreign trade as 
a factor in national development ; the basis of international trade with 
a study of factors affecting the volume, the character, and the direc- 
tion of trade ; the great trade routes on land and sea, and the leading 
commercial nations of today ; commercial rivalries, and the part of the 
United States as a commercial nation of the future. Given in Chi- 
cago, second semester, Tu., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. Pro- 
fessor Haas. 

Foreign Trade (Economics Bn) — Significance. Method of in- 
vestigating whether a foreign market exists for a class of goods, and 
where it exists. How a foreign market can be developed: the nature 



46 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



of the article — its uses, possible substitutes, customs, habits, social or 
economic conditions affecting the possible use in a foreign country. 
Modification of the articles to meet foreign needs or prejudices and 
to facilitate shipment. Work of consular service. International 
credits; selling methods in international trade; packing; invoices; the 
contract; the voyage; the delivery; international exchange. Given in 
Chicago, first and second semesters, Fri., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, two 
units. Professor Clark. 

Latin- Am eric a (Commerce C2) — Colonial establishments of 
Spain and Portugal in South America; subsequent development of 
customs, institutions, social and economic life, methods of trade and 
commerce: Mexico, Central America, West Indies, Brazil, with 
special emphasis upon Argentine, Chile and Peru. Relations of these 
countries with each other, with the United States, and with Europe. 
Given in Chicago, first semester, Wed., 6:05 to 7:00; second se- 
mester, Tu., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, two units. Professor Cox. 

Oriental Trade (Commerce C3) — The trade of the United States 
with oriental countries — the Philippines, Japan, China and India. 
The course will deal with each of these countries separately, under 
the following heads: the land, the people, racial characteristics, social 
organization, industrial development and organization, trade and 
commerce, business and economic relations with the United States. 
Given in Chicago, second semester, Wed., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one 
unit. Dr. Das. 

Geography of North America (Geology B12) — A study of the 
influence of geographic conditions on the development of North 
America as a whole; the physical features and climatic conditions 
modifying life; the character and distribution of each nation's re- 
sources, their exploitation, and problems of conservation; the place 
of each North American nation as a part of the industrial and com- 
mercial world. Open to students who have completed Geology A5. 
Given in Evanston, second semester. Hours to be arranged. 

Geography of South and Central America (Geology Cj) — A study 
of the influences of geographic conditions on the development of the 
different South and Central American countries; the physical fea- 
tures, climatic conditions, and general relationships; a study of the 
geography of each country with special emphasis on present conditions 
and development as an index of future possibilities. Special emphasis 
will be placed upon our trade with South and Central American 
countries. Open to students who have completed Geology B12. 
Given in Evanston, first semester. Hours to be arranged. 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 47 



Geology — Other courses dealing with physical and geographical 
conditions with respect to their bearing upon the natural resources 
and trade relations of North and South America, are offered by the 
Department of Geology in the College of Liberal Arts. 

Contemporary Europe (Commerce C*]) — A review of European 
history since 1850; the development of nationalism, national im- 
perialism, and democracy; economic and social changes; the major 
events and immediate results of the Great War. Given in Evanston ; 
see Annual Catalog. Given in Chicago, second semester, Wed., 5:15 
to 7:00. Credit, one unit. Professor Terry. 

Economics 

PROFESSOR DEIBLER, PROFESSOR HEILMAN, PROFESSOR SECRIST, PRO- 
FESSOR VANDERBLUE, PROFESSOR CLARK, PROFESSOR PEIRCE, 
PROFESSOR RAY, PROFESSOR TODD, MR. HAHNE, 
MR. WELLS, MR. MC JOHNSTON 

A. The Elements of Economics — An elementary course in the 
principles of economics. First semester — An examination of the 
fundamental principles of economics. Second semester — Application 
of these principles to practical problems. Throughout the course 
special attention is given to the relation between theory and practice. 
Required of Sophomores taking Pre-Commerce work. Given in 
Evanston (for hours and credit, see Annual Catalog). Given in 
Chicago, first and second semesters, Sec. A, Mon., 7:15 to 9:15; 
Sec. B, Tu., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. C, Sat., 2:15 to 4:15; Sec. D, Mon. 
and Th., 6:05 to 7:00; Sec. F, Th., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. G, Mon., 
7:15 to 9:15; second semester, Sec. E, Tu. and Fri., 7:15 to 9:15. 
Credit, two units^ Professor Deibler, Professor Lagerquist, Pro- 
fessor Secrist, Professor Vanderblue, Professor Clark, Professor 
Peirce, Professor Ray, Mr. Hahne, Mr. Wells, Mr. Mcjohnston. 

B. Sociology — Modern Social Welfare and Reform Movements. 
A survey of attempts to overcome certain social maladjustments: 
child labor, the city, bad housing, poverty, degeneracy; movements for 
public health, industrial democracy, social insurance, protection of 
infancy and youth, public recreation, etc. Given in Chicago, second 
semester, Th., 5:15 to 7:00. Credit, one unit. Professor Todd. 

B4. Sociology — Social evolution and progress, with particular 
reference to social laws; social institutions, such as the family, the 
state; social progress, and physical, psychical, economic, and political 
factors in social progress. Given in Evanston, Mon., Wed., Fri., 8. 



48 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Credit, three semester-hours. Professor Bailey. For description of 
other courses in Sociology in College of Liberal Arts, see Annual 
Catalog. 

C2. Business and Government — The relations between the 
public and public service corporations. The necessity of regula- 
tion, various methods of control — the franchise, the indeter- 
minate permit, public utilities commissions. The development of the 
principles of valuation, rate-making, service, and capitalization. The 
relations between government and private businesses. Regulation of 
competition. Control of corporations and trusts. Government pro- 
motion and encouragement of business, co-operation between govern- 
ment and business, activities of business organizations, elements of a 
national policy towards business. Required of Commerce students 
in their second year. Given in Evanston, second semester, Tu., Th., 
9:00. Credit, two semester-hours. Given in Chicago, second se- 
mester, Mon., 5:1540 7:00. Credit, one unit. Professor Heilman. 

Government — Other courses in Government are offered by the 
Department of Political Science in the College of Liberal Arts. 
These courses may be elected by Commerce students who can satisfy 
the prerequisites fixed by the Department. 

C3. Labor Problems and Trade Unionism — The development 
of a wage-earning class with special emphasis on economic causes. 
Problems of woman and child labor. Immigration. Early organi- 
zations of labor. Trade union history, structure, methods and poli- 
cies. The trade agreement, strikes, arbitration, the injunction and 
the legal responsibilities of the union. Open to students who have 
completed Economics A. Given in Evanston, first semester, Mon., 
Wed., Fri., 8. Credit, three semester-hours. Professor Deibler. 

C4. Labor Conditions and Labor Legislatign — Factory condi- 
tions in respect to hours, wages, sanitation. Industrial accidents, 
safety standards and accident prevention. Limitation of hours. 
Workmen's compensation. Law T s regulating the employment of 
women and children. Unemployment insurance. Minimum wages. 
Labor bureaus and the administration of labor laws. Open to stu- 
dents who have completed or are taking a course in the B group of 
courses in the Department of Economics. Given in Evanston, second 
semester, Mon., Wed., Fri., 8. Credit, three semester-hours. Pro- 
fessor Deibler. 

B6. Elements of Public Finance and Taxation — The nature 
of the state; theories and classification of public expenditures; 
national, state and local expenditures; budget making in theory 
and practice. The theory and practice of taxation. Property, income 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 49 



and inheritance taxes. National, state and local tax systems and 
administration. Open to students who have completed Economics A. 
Given in Evanston, second semester, Mon., Wed., Fri., 9. Credit, 
three semester-hours. Professor Secrist. 

C7. Principles of Taxation — Historical survey of early taxa- 
tion with respect to tax principles; justice in taxation; theories of 
taxation; distribution of taxation; present tendencies and reform in 
taxation. Open to students who have completed Economics B6. 
Given in Evanston, a semester course, Mon., Wed., Fri., 10. Credit, 
three semester-hours. Professor Secrist. 

Industrial Relations 

PROFESSOR WALTER DILL SCOTT, PROFESSOR HOWARD, 
PROFESSOR DUTTON 

Employment Management (Commerce B6) — A course designed to 
meet the demand for instruction in the scientific adjustment of the re- 
lations of employer and employee. The employment department, its 
organization and functions, its relations with the management, with 
foremen and with workmen. Labor turnover and absenteeism. Their 
significance and costs, methods of determining and reducing. Rate 
setting, safety and welfare work. Given in Evanston, second se- 
mester, Tu., Th., Sat., 8. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in 
Chicago, second semester, Tu. and Fri., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, two 
units. Professor Dutton, Professor Howard co-operating. 

Personnel and Labor Administration (Commerce C4) — The selec- 
tion of employees; trade and performance tests, mental tests, physical 
examinations. Training and education of employees. Transfers and 
promotions. The maintenance of discipline and the development of 
loyalty, methods of compensation, e.g., day and piece rates, bonus and 
premium plans, profit sharing, etc. Employees' organizations, trade 
agreements, etc. Given in Chicago, first semester, repeated in the 
second semester, Sat., 2:15 to 4:15. Credit, one unit. Professor 
Scott. 

Seminar in Personnel Administration (Commerce Di) — An ad- 
vanced course in personnel methods and administration, combining 
classroom instruction with laboratory and field work in the personnel 
or employment department of selected business establishments. Open 
to graduate students and to candidates for the M.B.A. degree in 
their last year. Given in Evanston. Hours to be arranged. Credit, 
four to eight semester-hours. Professor Scott. 



50 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Insurance 

DR. HOOD 

Life Insurance (Commerce By) — The aim of the course is to fit 
men for the life insurance business, as salesmen and executives. Rela- 
tion of life insurance to other economic agencies; life insurance as a 
science; principles underlying the making of the contract or policy; 
the underlying science of psychology applied to the art of selling. 
Application of the principles of salesmanship with special reference 
to the particular problems of the life insurance salesman. Given in 
Chicago, second semester, Wed., 7:15 to 9:15, and Sat., 2:15 to 
4:15. Credit j two units. Dr. Hood. 

Languages and Literature 

PROFESSOR SMART, PROFESSOR SNYDER, PROFESSOR BRYAN, PROFESSOR 
MARSH, PROFESSOR CRANE, PROFESSOR MYERS, PROFESSOR 
HARDY, MR. WRIGHT, MR. MC JOHNSTON, MR. GOOD- 
FELLOW, MR. GARWOOD, MR. WARNER 

English I — A review of the fundamental elements of the language, 
intended to meet the needs of diploma and special students who are 
not fully prepared for English II. Given in Chicago, first and 
second semesters, Sec. A, Wed., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. B, Wed., 7:15 
to 9:15; Sec. C, Th., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. D, Tu. and Fri., 6:05 to 
7:00; second semester, Sec. E, Mon. and Th., 7:15 to 9:15. No 
credit. Professor Smart, Professor Crane, Professor Marsh, Mr. 
Goodfellow. 

English II — A study of advanced sentence structure, paragraph- 
ing, and organization of material, supplemented by practice in the 
writing of themes; training in ease, correctness, and effectiveness of 
expression. Business correspondence: freshness and naturalness in 
style; sales letters; follow-up letters; collection letters; adjustment 
letters. Given in Chicago, first and second semesters, Sec. A, Tu., 
7:15 to 9:15; Sec. B, Mon., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. C, Sat., 2:15 to 
4:15; Sec. D, Tu. and Th., 6:05 to 7:00; Sec. E, Tu., 7:15 to 
9:15; Sec. F, Th., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. G, Wed., 7:15 to 9:15. 
Credit, two units. Second semester, Sec. H, Mon., 7:15 to 9:15- 
Credit, one unit. Professor Smart, Professor Bryan, Professor 
Marsh, Professor Myers, Mr. Mcjohnston, Mr. Garwood. 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 51 



English III and IV — Effective Speaking — A study of the theory 
of effective speaking; practical, original application of the rules and' 
principles. The class offers an opportunity for practice and failures 
under kindly, constructive criticism. Open to students who have 
completed English I or its equivalent. Given in Chicago, first and 
second semesters, Wed. and Fri., 6:05 to 7:00. Credit, two units. 
Mr. Wright. 

Argumentation and Extempore Speaking—Selecting material, or- 
ganizing it, expressing it effectively. Learning to speak results only 
from speaking, therefore opportunities to speak are given. This 
course is designed to help men to promotion in business by teaching 
them to express their ideas orally in a pleasing and effective manner. 
Given in Chicago, second semester, Wed., 5:15 to 7:00. Credit, one 
unit. Professor Hardy. 

Advanced Business English — The larger aspects of effective writ- 
ing; the presentation of the subject as a whole, as distinguished from 
the details of sentence structure. Consideration of the elements of 
effective style, based on the study of passages from writers of recog- 
nized standing. Given in Evanston, first semester, repeated in the 
second semester. Required in the second year of the course in Busi- 
ness Administration. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chi- 
cago, second semester, Sat., 2:15 to 4:15. Open to students who 
have completed English II or its equivalent. In exceptional cases, 
students who have not completed English II may be admitted, with 
the consent of the instructor. Credit, one unit. Professor Smart. 

Business Correspondence — The underlying principles of the art 
of writing effective letters as applied to business; analysis of effective 
thought and expression in handling business correspondence, includ- 
ing routine correspondence, credit, collection, and adjustment let- 
ters; inter-department and executive memoranda; sales letters; train- 
ing correspondence. The case method of study is used throughout 
the course. Given in Chicago, second semester, Th., 7:15 to 9:15. 
Credit, one unit. Mr. Mcjohnston. 

Literature — Anglo-American ideals in English and American 
literature. Mark Twain, O. Henry, Bret Harte, Winston Churchill, 
Lincoln, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Hawthorne, Lowell, Whittier, 
Stevenson, Hardy, Thackeray, Dickens, Tennyson, Burns, Milton, 
Shakespeare. 



52 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



A study of English and American literature as a reflex of Anglo- 
American civilization and ideals. Given in Evanston; see Annual 
Catalog. Given in Chicago, second semester, Wed., 7:15 to 9:15. 
Credit, one unit. Professor Snyder. 

Commercial French — A thorough drill in French grammar and 
composition. The course is intended for those who desire a practical 
knowledge of modern French for business purposes. Given in 
Chicago, first and second semesters, Wed., 6:05 to 8:00. Credit, two 
units. Mr. Warner. 

Commercial Spanish — A thorough training in pronunciation and 
conversation. Appropriate stress is laid on the technical vocabulary 
of trade, and on Spanish forms of commercial correspondence. 
Thorough drill in grammar and in composition is an important fea- 
ture of the work. Given in Chicago, first and second semesters, Tu. 
and Fri., 6:05 to 7 :oo. Credit, two units. Mr. Warner. 

Organization and Management 

PROFESSOR HEILMAN, PROFESSOR DUTTON, MR. JACOBS, MR. OGILVIE 

Business Organization I (Commerce B8J — A systematic descrip- 
tive survey of the organization and operation of the business, of its 
typical activities and their relationship to each other. The promo- 
tion and financing of the business; forms of organization, line and 
staff, functional and divisional, the problems and control of produc- 
tion, planning and operation; employment and handling of men; pur- 
chasing; traffic; advertising, selling and sales management; banking 
and credit, credit instruments, collections; accounting — cost account- 
ing, business barometers, executive control through statistics, inspec- 
tion and supervision. The purpose of this course is to outline in 
each important field of business the more essential problems and 
customary methods of procedure and to indicate the relationship of 
specialized problems, such as purchasing or accounting, to the con- 
trol and operation of the business as a whole. Given in Evanston, 
first semester, Mon., Wed., Fri., 8. Credit, three semester-hours. 
Professor Heilman. Given in Chicago, first semester, Wed., 7:15 
to 9:15. Credit, one unit. Professor Dutton and Mr. Jacobs. 

Business Organization II (Commerce G5) — A course primarily 
analytical in character, dealing with the problems of structure and 
internal organization of the business: (a) The structure of organiza- 
tion ; standards, classification and division of duties, centralization, 
functionalization and specialization ; the staff function and initiative 
in business; (b) the operation of the organization; planning, super- 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 53 



vision, inspection and follow-up, co-ordination, control by records, 
discipline, leadership, executive control. Given in Evanston, second 
semester, Mon., Wed., Fri., 8. Credit, three semester-hours. Given 
in Chicago, second semester, Wed., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. 
Professor Dutton. 

Factory Management (Commerce Bg) — Factors affecting location 
of plant; adaptation of building to process; types of factory building; 
routing of work; selection and arrangement of machinery; auxiliary 
departments. Types of organization and special adaptations of each 
type ; executive control ; methods in the Production, Stores, Purchas- 
ing, Shipping, Engineering, Cost and other departments; progress 
records; standardization. Handling of labor, wage systems; time 
study; selection, discipline, and records; methods of securing the 
workmen's co-operation. Given in Evanston, first semester, Tu., Th., 
8. (With field work.) Open to Commerce students only. Credit, 
three semester-hours. Given in Chicago, first semester, Tu., 7:15 to 
9:15. Credit, one unit. Professor Dutton. 

Office Organization and Management (Commerce Bio) — A 
practical study of principles of organization and management as 
applied to office and counting-room functions. The work is prin- 
cipally intended for students pursuing courses in business adminis- 
tration, accounting, and secretarial work, and deals with the duties 
and problems of office executives. Personnel ; management ; editorial 
work; human interest; office appliances; correspondence; profit-pro- 
ducing functions of office. Given in Evanston, second semester, Th., 
4 to 6. Credit, two semester-hours. Given in Chicago, first semester, 
repeated in the second semester, Tu., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. 
Mr. Ogilvie. 

Advanced Office Management (Commerce C6) — Training and 
development of personnel. Use of mechanical appliances for economy 
and output. Correspondence methods; shorthand and voice-writing ; 
form letters; standard paragraphs; incoming and outgoing mail. Fil- 
ing systems (correspondence and records): equipment and supplies; 
principles; methods; practice. Department records: purchasing and 
storeroom; sales department; credit and collection departments; re- 
ceiving and shipping departments. General office practice. Given in 
Evanston. Credit, one unit. Mr. Ogilvie. 



54 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Psychology 

PROFESSOR WALTER DILL SCOTT, PROFESSOR WEBB, 
PROFESSOR HOWARD 

General Psychology (Psychology Ai) — A brief study of how the 
mind works. The principal mental operations, such as memory, rea- 
soning, imagination, feelings, instincts, etc., will be explained, in their 
relation to everyday life. This course is intended to lay the basis for 
the study of Business Psychology. Required of Pre-Commerce stu- 
dents. Given in Evanston (for hours and credit, see Annual Cata- 
log). Given in Chicago, first semester, Sec. A, Fri., 7:15 to 9:15; 
Sec. B, Tu. and Th., 6:05 to 7:00; Sec. C, Tu., 7:15 to 9:15; sec- 
ond semester, Th., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. Professor Webb 
and Professor Howard. 

Business Psychology (Psychology Bj) — Psychological principles 
which have the most direct application to business. Analysis of busi- 
ness practices and an attempt to understand from a psychological 
standpoint some of the causes of successes and failures in business. 
Individual students study the actual and also the possible applications 
in business of such factors as imitation, competition, loyalty, love of 
the game, and personal differences. Particular attention is paid to 
advertising and to the selection and promotion of employees. Open 
to students who have completed General Psychology. Required of 
Pre-Commerce students. Given in Evanston, second semester, Mon., 
Wed., Fri., 11. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago, 
second semester, Sec. A, Tu., 7:15 to 9:15; Sec. B, Tu. and Th., 
6:05 to 7:00; Sec. C, Fri., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. Pro- 
fessor Webb and Professor Howard. 

Psychology — See also Seminar in Personnel Administration, under 
Industrial Relations. Other courses in Psychology, offered by the 
Department of Psychology in the College of Liberal Arts, may be 
elected by Commerce students who can satisfy the prerequisites fixed 
by the Department. 

Statistics 

PROFESSOR SECRIST 

Statistics and Statistical Methods (Economics C15)— The course 
systematically develops the principles of statistical methods and shows 
by means of illustrations and laboratory problems how they apply 
in the economic and business world. The course follows both the 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 55 



lecture and laboratory methods. Students are required, under the 
direction of the instructor, to pass judgment upon statistical data al- 
ready collected, to collect new data, and to apply to them the stand- 
ard statistical measures. Emphasis is placed on the care and discrimi- 
nation which are necessary in order to formulate judgments based 
on statistical data alone, and on the place of statistics in methods of 
study. Required of Commerce students in their second year. Open 
to other students who have completed a course in Economics as ad- 
vanced as the B group. Given in Evanston, first semester, Mon., Tu., 
Wed., Th., 10. Credit, four semester-hours. Given in Chicago, 
first semester, Th., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. This course is 
followed by a course in business barometers during the second semes- 
ter, meeting on the same night. Credit, one unit. Professor Secrist. 
Business Statistics (Economics Di) — The application of statistical 
methods to business and economic problems, particular attention be- 
ing given to the development and criticism of business barometers. 
The course constructively considers the business barometers currently 
issued and criticizes them from the points of view of content, ability 
to forecast business conditions and their application to particular 
business problems. Each student is required definitely to take part 
in the analysis and criticism of business data. Open to students who 
have completed the course in Statistics and Statistical Methods. 
Given in Evanston, second semester, Mon., Wed., Fri., 8. Credit, 
three semester-hours. Professor Secrist. 

Business Barometers (Commerce D2) — The application of statis- 
tical methods to business and economic problems, particular attention 
being given to the development and criticism of business barometers. 
The course constructively considers the business barometers currently 
issued and criticizes them from the points of view of content, ability 
to forecast business conditions and their application to particular busi- 
ness problems. Each student is required to develop during the year his 
own particular business problems, to criticize from his own particular 
viewpoint the business barometers issued, and constructively to suggest 
the methods by which barometers may be prepared which will be of 
service in his own field. The course aims to show how statistical 
methods are of service in the interpretation of business data for fore- 
casting purposes. Open to students who have completed the course 
in Statistics and Statistical 'Methods and to others with the consent 
of the instructor. Given in Chicago, second semester, Th., 7:15 to 
9:15. Credit, one unit. Professor Secrist. 



56 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Transportation 

PROFESSOR VANDERBLUE 

The Interstate Commerce Act (Economics Cn) — Development 
of American transportation systems; the economic characteristics of 
railroads, competitive and non-competitive rate-making; the Inter- 
state Commerce Act, as amended ; the causes for the passage of the 
Act, and the results of its workings; the railroad traffic associations; 
general characteristics of the rate structure; railroad rates and the 
problems of plant location and of marketing; milling and fabrication 
in transit; diversion; routing and tracing; the Administrative and 
Conference ruling of the Interstate Commerce Commission; the In- 
terstate Commerce Act, and its interpretation. Given in Evanston, 
first semester, Tu., Th., Sat., 9. Credit, three semester-hours. 
Given in Chicago, first semester, Fri., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one 
unit. Professor Vanderblue. 

Rate Structure (Economics C12) — The place of the Traffic De- 
partment in the railroad organization ; the rules of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission governing the compilation, filing, and publi- 
cation of tariffs; the Official, Western, and Southern Classifications, 
and the extent of their application ; the interpretation of classifications 
and of tariffs; Trunk line and Central Freight Association rates; 
rates into Southeastern Territory and the Carolinas; the Virginia 
Cities adjustment; Trans-Mississippi and Trans-Missouri rates; 
Colorado, Utah, and Montana common points; rates to South- 
western Territory and Texas common points ; Transcontinental rates ; 
intra-state and intra-territorial rates; the effect of the Panama Canal 
on rates and traffic; export and import rates; port differentials and 
the decisions of the Commission thereon. Given in Evanston, second 
semester, Tu., Th., Sat., 9. Open to Commerce students only. 
Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago, second semester, 
Fri., 7:15 to 9:15. Credit, one unit. Professor Vanderblue. 

SEMINAR AND RESEARCH COURSES 

Economic Seminar (Economics Di) — Involves an original investi- 
gation, dealing with a phase of a fundamental economic problem 
related to the probable future business field of the student. Students 
meet for the discussion of general questions involving the technique 
of investigation, such as the use of original materials, taking of notes, 
marshalling of facts. The individual work is done under the direc- 
tion of a member or members of the faculty. Intended to give the 



THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 57 

student training in the use of original data and in drawing correct 
and accurate conclusions based on all of the facts in a limited field of 
inquiry. Credit, three to six semester-hours. 

Other Courses 

COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS AND THE GRADUATE SCHOOL 

Undergraduate and graduate students in Evanston are encour- 
aged to elect, in the College of Liberal Arts and in the Graduate 
School, such courses as will contribute to their efficiency in the line 
of business for which they are preparing. Credit for such courses 
will be accepted towards the degree Bachelor of Science in Com- 
merce, subject to the approval of the Educational Adviser, and to- 
wards the degree Master of Business Administration, subject to the 
approval of the Director of the Graduate Division. 



For details concerning courses in the College of Liberal Arts and 
in other schools of the University consult the Annual Catalog of the 
University. 



58 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Attendance 
1919-1920 

Graduate students 222 

Undergraduate students: 

Students in Evanston Classes 237 

Students in Chicago Classes 2,382 

2,619 

Special Courses — Chicago : 

Summer School, 1919 137 

Federal Tax Courses, 1919 216 

353 



Total 3,194 

Duplicates deducted 82 



Total individual students registered in all courses 3> 112